One of the distinctive features of modern educational system is the change from state to public-state government of education. The main idea of social-state government of education is that efforts of state and society combine in the solution of educational problems, in other words more rights and freedom are given to teachers, students and parents in the choice of content, form and method of educational process organization. The choice of personality´s rights and freedom makes a man not only the object of education but also it´s active subject, building his own educational strategy independently, being able to orient in the wide range of educational programs, educational establishments, types of social relations.
State character of educational system means first of all that the single state policy in the sphere of education is run, and fixed in the Law of Russian Federation "Concerning Education" which was approved in 1992. This law is built on the combination of state policy principles, such as:
- humanization character of education, the priority of human values, life and health of a man, free development of personality, upbringing of patriotism and love for Motherland;
- the combination of federal, cultural and educational environment, the educational system of national cultures and regional cultural traditions under conditions of international state;
- democratic, social-state character of education government and so on .
The main subject of educational process is protection and further development of social experience (system of knowledge, ways of activity, spiritual values). The notion "educational process is very often considered as a synonym of the notion "aducational activity". The two interrelated, connected components are included into the content of these notions: pedagogical activity (the organization of social experience learning) and training (learning itself). Two kinds of activity: pedagogical and learning act as two sides of single educational process, its participants (a teacher and a student) are the subject of educational process. Education as a system represents itself as a complex of aim-directed pedagogical actions, influence the aim of which is to transfer the world knowledge, social experience, accumulated in the process of cultural historical development of the society to the young generation and also training of socially acceptable and socially approved forms of behavior. The creation of effective educational system with inclusion of new didactical means requires theoretical knowledge of laws, according to which the educational process runs .
Internal laws of educational process characterize its dependence on the external processes and conditions: social economical, political situation, level of culture, need of the society for the definite type of personality and educational level in the given historical period. Connections between components of pedagogical process: aims, content, methods, means, forms - are released to the internal laws.
Educational structure is characterized by such components as: students´ knowledge of experience, accumulated in the process of cultural historical development of the society, upbringing of socially acceptable and approved forms of behavior, intellectual and physical development. In this respect education is determined by the definite ideas of man´s social functions, accepted in the society at the given moment. These structural elements determine the content of education, in other words that complex of socially valuable experience depends only on them, and the acquisition of this experience is necessary for the young generation for the effective functioning in the society.
The quickly growing informative field and completely new communicative technologist influence more and more the modern state of society development and human knowledge development. That´s why nowadays the need for specialists, who possess a high level of creative potential development, the ability to put and solve systematically different tasks is distinctively evident.
So, education is not only the process, but the result of human acquisition of social cultural experience under conditions of personality development. The intelligence of a person is a result of summary influence of at least three components: aim-directed education and upbringing, self-education, chaotic influence of social and informative environment. However, the part of aim-directed education (school, high, professional) is the leading one, in the first place due to system and methods.
The analysis of historical aspect of educational system development and their creative realization shows that social historical context not only influenced the theory and practice of education but in many aspects determined and defined their development. The main sources, of such development are:
- pedagogical science, which allows not only to analyze and systemize the achievements of educational practice, but also theoretically forecast and model further development of pedagogical process;
- pedagogical practice, which reveals the efficiency of this or that pedagogical theories and models application;
- social order, requirements of state and society in the sphere of education.
The last source influence on the development of pedagogical process is very high. State is able to initiate and discredit this or that tendencies of pedagogical process through educational system. The society, developing, dictates the urgent need for the training of specialists, who will be required under new political and social economical conditions. This influences the form of educational and upbringing tasks, definition of educational process contents and choice of adequate methods and means .
Development and changing of these sources (modern achievements of psychological pedagogical sciences, innovative practice, new social order in the sphere of education) led to the appearance of new tendencies in the sphere of education both in the organization of pedagogical process itself in demands to its result.
The main tendency now is humanization of education, growing attention to the personality of a student as the highest value of the society, the tendency to form a citizen with high intellectual, moral and physical qualities. The principle of humanization was included in the didactical principles long ago, but only on the modern stage of Russian education development the real conditions of its realization appeared. Humanization of educational content is achieved by the maximum usage of the humanities possibilities, that´s why the priority role nowadays is given to linguistic education, formation of communicative culture, which contributes to empathy, reflex, self-organization and self-regulation of man´s behavior.
In the State educational standard of high professional education (2005) for the specialists "Primary school pedagogies and methodology" great attention is paid to formation of primary school teacher´s communicative competence: a specialist should possess a developed ability of real communication with native speakers, with authentic sources of information and communicative ability to speak the given language, the nucleus of which is communicative competence.
Nowadays the society sets much higher demands to the communicative qualities of a teacher, his abilities to orient himself in the informative world, possess competitions and mobility, to solve non-standard tasks. This fact accentuates the task of communicative competence development. This concerns each participant of the educational process (a teacher and a student), which presupposes the necessity of qualitative changes in the system of high education, especially in educational establishments, which specialize in the humanism (pedagogies, for example).
All the programs of the humanistic upbringing for the future primary school teachers (Pedagogical faculty, Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University) are aimed at the formation of the harmonic creative language personality, because "speaking, thinking and feeling person - is the main actor in the world... his understanding of the world, his attitude to other people are expressed in the language means which he selects for communication" [3, 108]. Thus, anthropocentrically approach in modern education leads to the fact that an ideal becomes human, it starts from the Biblical ethics, that´s why the urgent necessity of modern education and upbringing becomes the merging in one subject the features "homo sapiens" and "homo eloquens".
Conclusions. Nowadays the change to social state government of education takes place. It widens the possibilities of a person to choose rights and freedom, makes a person not only an object of education, but also its active subject, independently building his own educational strategy. The need for specialists is quite distinctly expressed. Specialists should possess a high level of creative potential development, the ability to set and solve different tasks. Nowadays the state and the society set much higher requirements to communicative qualifies of a teacher, his abilities to orient himself in the informative world, get more knowledge, possess competitiveness and mobility, solve non-standard tasks. This fact accentuates the task of communicative competence development of eacy educational process participant (a teacher and a student), which presupposes the need for qualitative changes in the system of high education, especialle in educational establishments, such as Pedagogics.
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Библиографическая ссылкаKuznetsova V.V. THE MAIN TENDENCIES IN THE SPHERE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER PROFESSIONAL TRAINING // Международный журнал прикладных и фундаментальных исследований. – 2009. – № 2. – С. 65-67;
URL: http://applied-research.ru/ru/article/view?id=373 (дата обращения: 20.01.2021).